Know the facts on prostate cancer

A doctor speaks with a patient.

Prostate cancer strikes fear in the hearts of even the strongest men. No wonder: there's a fair bit of myth and misunderstanding about it. But the American Cancer Society points to a growing list of promising options for prostate cancer treatment, some of which are quicker and less painful than the options you might be familiar with.1 There’s less risk of damage or scarring to nerves and other organs. So pay attention to warning signs and see your doctor if you think something's wrong.

The first thing you need to know is what the prostate is and does. It’s a gland in a man's reproductive system. It's about the size of a walnut and is located just under the bladder. Fluid from the prostate gland is part of a man's semen. As men get older, their prostates can get bigger. An enlarged prostate may block the bladder or urethra, making it hard to urinate.

Several conditions can cause an enlarged prostate. One of them is prostate cancer. It is the second most common cancer for men, after skin cancer, according to the American Cancer Society.2

There's no way to know for sure if you're at risk for prostate cancer. But the chances seem higher for men who are 50 years old or older, and for African-Americans. Your risk may also be higher if your brother or father has had prostate cancer.3

Signs, symptoms and screening

Signs of prostate cancer can vary by individuals. Some men don't even have symptoms at all. But some of the signs doctors see most include frequent urination, weak or interrupted flow of urine, trouble urinating or pain or burning while urinating. Other common symptoms are pain during ejaculation, blood in the urine or semen, and pain in the back or hips that doesn’t go away.4

What’s tricky is that some of these can be symptoms of entirely different problems. So don't assume the worst. See your doctor to get answers and make a plan.

Doctors have differing opinions about whether men without symptoms should get regular screening for prostate cancer. Talk to your doctor about what he or she recommends for you.

Typical treatments for prostate cancer

To treat prostate cancer, doctors can use surgery, radiation or hormone therapy. Other types of treatment are being tested too. These include cryotherapy (freezing the cancer cells), chemotherapy, biological therapy and high-intensity focused ultrasound. Researchers in Europe recently reported promising results from a form of light therapy that attacks prostate tumors.5

Each of these treatment options has its pros and cons. In fact, not every case of prostate cancer needs to be treated. If your cancer is diagnosed late in life and is slow-growing, your doctor may feel that watching and waiting is best.6

For more information about prostate cancer and its treatment, visit the National Cancer Institute., opens new window

This information is for educational purposes only and does not replace treatment or advice from a healthcare professional. If you have questions, please talk with your doctor.


  1. “Considering Prostate Cancer Treatment Options,” American Cancer Society, last accessed Dec. 17, 2019,, opens new window.
  2. “Key Statistics for Prostate Cancer,” American Cancer Society, last accessed Dec. 17, 2019,, opens new window.
  3. “Prostate Cancer Risk Factors,” American Cancer Society, last accessed Dec. 17, 2019,, opens new window
  4. “What Are the Symptoms of Prostate Cancer?” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, last accessed Dec. 17, 2019,, opens new window.
  5. “Light Therapy Destroyed Prostate Cancer in Clinical Trial,”, last accessed Dec. 17, 2019,, opens new window.
  6. “Considering Prostate Cancer Treatment Options.”