Medical management

Medical Management

Blood Sugar Monitoring

Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar, happens when the body doesn’t make enough insulin to counter rising sugar levels in the blood. Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar and happens when blood sugar levels are too low.

Blood sugar monitoring gives you a snapshot of blood sugar levels at the moment of testing. Consistent monitoring starts to show how food, exercise, medicine, illness, and stress affect your blood sugar levels. It also helps you see patterns or triggers of high and low episodes.

The best idea is to see your doctor and make a plan to monitor your blood sugar. Then you can work together to keep it under control.

The result of an A1C test will give you an average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. It measures the percentage of hemoglobin – a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen – that is coated with sugar. The higher the A1C level, the higher the average blood sugar over the period, and the higher the risk of diabetes complications.

Goal blood sugar ranges for people with diabetes:

Physical state Range(mg/dl)
Fasting 70 – 110
Before a meal 70 – 130
1 hour after a meal less than 180
2 hours after a meal less than 140
Bedtime 100– 140

Preventing long-term health problems

Diabetes can cause or contribute to other health problems. Your best bet to stay healthy is to see your doctor regularly. Your doctor can check on your health with screenings and tests for your blood sugar, eyes, kidneys, and cholesterol. Working with your doctor to keep your blood sugar close to normal can help protect you from many conditions.

All parts of your body are affected by diabetes. Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure and blindness among adults. Other long-term health problems include obesity, high blood sugar, high cholesterol, high blood pressure (hypertension), and metabolic syndrome.

Without proper treatment, uncontrolled blood sugars lead to serious problems. People with uncontrolled diabetes have more issues with heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, eye damage (retinopathy), nerve damage (neuropathy), slow healing, and dental problems. The total cost related to diabetes in the U.S. is approximately $218 billion.

Recommended reading:
Living well with diabetes: You can do it!

Diabetes Medicines

Medicine needs differ among people with diabetes. Those with type 1 diabetes always need insulin. Those with type 2 diabetes may need oral medicines (pills) and/or insulin for effective treatment.

Diabetes medicine in pills target different parts of the body, including the pancreas, liver, small intestine, cells, brain, kidneys and gut hormones. These treatments stimulate the body in different ways to normalize blood sugar.

When a body can’t be prompted to make more insulin, it must get insulin from somewhere else. There are many types of insulin available, and they all require a shot. They don’t come as pills.

Recommended reading:
ADA: Medication